An important book has accompanied the traveler/doodler author of this blog, making it possible, at least, to consider taking some notes on it. The book is called Frame Innovation: Create New Thinking By Design, by Kees Dorst (The MIT Press, 2015). Dorst is a Professor of Design Innovation at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia and at Endhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands.
As one reads the book, it is clear that the book’s author has been researching and developing case studies of the concept of design thinking–as applied to practical and often seemingly intractable social and urban problems–for many years. Although the text of this book is necessarily abstract in places–explaining, for instance, the difference between traditional analytic approaches of “deduction,” and “induction” and design thinking approaches of “abduction” and design abduction”–the author is quick to remedy this through his use of case studies and helpful word-graphics. ((To fast-forward a moment to the topic of a future blog post or two, the basic issue here is a very big and momentous idea. It is that our traditional methods of analytical reasoning, deduction and induction, “are not enough if we want to make something. If we want to create new things–or new circumstances–we need different approaches, for which even “normal abduction” (the reasoning pattern behind conventional problem-solving using tried and tested patterns of relationships) is insufficient.))
As explained in the series foreword by the editors of this new MIT Press series on design thinking and theory, design challenges today “require new frameworks of theory and research to address contemporary problem areas.” Often problem-solving for modern challenges requires “interdisciplinary teams with a transdisciplinary focus.” According to the editors, three contextual challenges define the nature of many design problems today. These issues affect many of the major design problems that face us in whatever field we’re working. They include:
–a complex environment in which many projects or products cross the boundaries of several organizations and stakeholder, producer, and user groups;
–projects or products that must meet the expectations of many organizations, stakeholders, producers, and users; and
–demands at every level of production, distribution, reception, and control.
Past environments “were simpler,” write the editors, and “made simpler demands.” To meet modern challenges, experience and development are still necessary, but “they are no longer sufficient.” “Most of today’s design challenges require analytic and synthetic planning skills that cannot be developed through practice alone,” they write. What is needed, they say, is “a qualitatively different form of professional practice that emerges in response to the demands of the information society and the knowledge economy to which it gives rise.”
Designers today confront complex social and political issues, the editors note, quoting the work of Donald Norman, (“Why Design Education Must Change,” 2010). What the authors are talking about is the fact that education today is not training professionals in ways to take integrated approaches to solve complex, inter-sector problems and imagining new futures. The book by Kees Dorst is the first in the series and, based on this writer’s close reading of it, it represents an excellent start to this ambitious (and profoundly needed) project.
Dorst argues that society today is being “tripped up” by the “emergence of a radically new species of problem: problems that are so open, complex, dynamic and networked that they seem impervious to solution.” He writes: “What all the news stories show us is that it makes no sense to keep trying to tackle these problems the way we used to. The trusted routines just don’t work anymore. These new types of problems require a radically different response.”
In the spirit of the focus of this blog–understanding “surprise” and the ways and whys for when we get “tripped up”–future posts will examine some of the important ideas in Dorst’s book.